The youngest layer is on the top, and the oldest layer is on the bottom. This principle states that rocks are originally layered in horizontal planes, and any inclining area is caused by tilting of the rocks.
This principle was founded by the Danish anatomist Nicolas Steno, who noted that during floods, streams spread across their floodplains and deposit layers of sediment that bury organisms dwelling there. These gases attack the components of the rock and deposit new minerals in cavities and fissures. Steno came up with this principle also (Dutch 1998).
Another way that precise dating can be achieved is if the artist records the actual date of his or her creation, the name of a leader of known reign, or a distinctive historical event, like the inscription shown in the previous chapter about King Yousif Assar Yathar’s invasion of the Najran region in 518 CE.
Then, however, it must be clear that the artist is referring to his or her own time, and not providing historical commentary.
By using the principle of superposition we can know that the layers toward the bottom are older than the layers toward the top. Usually, the rock pieces, called sediments, drop from the wind or water to make a layer. The principle of superposition can also help give a relative date of any type of biological remnants that are contained in the layers.
Relative dating by biostratigraphy is the preferred method in paleontology and is, in some respects, more accurate.The principle of superposition is defined as in the environment of an undisturbed layer of sedimentary rocks; the layers on the bottom are older than the layers towards the top.The pictures I have taken show very good examples of this.The Law of Superposition, which states that older layers will be deeper in a site than more recent layers, was the summary outcome of 'relative dating' as observed in geology from the 17th century to the early 20th century.
The regular order of occurrence of fossils in rock layers was discovered around 1800 by William Smith.Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age, (i.e. In geology, rock or superficial deposits, fossils and lithologies can be used to correlate one stratigraphic column with another.